Initial Management of an Acute Injury

common running injuries

Once an acute running injury occurs, whether to muscle, bone or ligament, it is imperative that you seek the most appropriate treatment for this. Injury often varies in severity, and therefore symptoms will differ. The most common signs of inflammation are heat, redness, swelling, pain and loss of function, not all of these symptoms may be present and some may even appear at a later date.

When you suspect you have sustained an injury to soft tissue (Muscle or Ligament) you must first minimize the symptoms of inflammation. The first 24 hours following the initial injury are critical in management. The following acronym is designed to control the bleeding and thus reduce inflammation and scar formation.

R: Relative Rest

I: Ice

C: Compression

E: Elevation

Rest

Following any musculoskeletal injury, depending upon the severity, may require some immobilization, generally research suggests that a short period of reduction in motion can result in a stronger scar, which will be able to withstand more force, thus improving tissue regeneration and promotion of parallel alignment (Brukner and Khan 2012).

It is important however not to rest the injured area for too long, extended periods of immobilisation can weaken not only the injured tissue but also the surrounding areas, making return to activity a slow process.

Ice

One of the most important components of inflammation recovery, is the application of ice, Ice has been thought to reduce tissue metabolism, thus reducing blood flow and accumulating fluid, which results in reduction of swelling. Application of ice should happen as soon after injury as possible and should continue for the first 48 hours.

Two application procedures have been suggested, continuous and intermittent.

Continuous: 20 mins every 2 hours

Intermittent: 10 mins, with 10 mins rest then another 10 mins ice every 2 hours.

There are a number of ways to apply ice, with the most common being reusable packs (which can be kept in the freezer and used when required), Chemical ice packs (these are one use, disposable packs which are good for travelling, can be an expensive long term option tho), and frozen veg (frozen peas have been found to be a good alternative to ice, as they conform to the body easily and can be re frozen for further uses).

Run for it have a range of ice packs available if you are short of frozen peas!

Prolonged exposure to ice can cause burning or nerve damage.

Compression

To reduce bleeding and swelling compression should be applied to the injury site, this should be used during and after ice application. The pressure should be firm but not to tight that it causes pain.

When using a bandage pressure should be initially applied distal (below) to the injury and with slight overlap move proximal (above) to one handbreadth above the injured area.

Elevation

The injured limb should be, where appropriate be raised above the heart, to reduce the pressure within the injured structure. This will also help in reducing the accumulation of fluid into the area, which will therefore reduce swelling.

Precautions in the Acute Stages

During the initial 72 hours there are a number of things that the injured person should avoid:

Heat: Which will increase blood flow to the injured site, therefore increasing swelling, NO hot baths, showers, saunas etc

Alcohol: this can mask the level of pain and severity of the injury.

Aggravating Activity: Can result in worsening of the injury or re-injury

Massage and aggressive manual therapy: can increase blood flow, thus increasing swelling and risking further injury.

Pamela Andrews

Pamela Andrews MSc ST MSST NASM CPT, is the owner and founder of Sports Injury Scotland. She has extensive research and hands-on experience in sport, and is currently working on her PhD. Her whole ethos focuses on the importance of implementing the most up-to-date scientific research into each individual assessment, treatment and rehabilitation. This ensures that the treatment they receive is tailored to suit the individual and the best possible for them.
She also feels that it is vital as a therapist to continually develop not only practical skills but the knowledge to become a successful therapist. She enjoys taking part in regular exercise, so understands the implications pain has on the ability to perform your sport to your full potential, and also the psychological impact of not being able to undertake your particular sport. She recently completed her first marathon in Berlin, so is able to fully appreciate the impact marathon training can have on the body.

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